CMATH
FUNCTIONS ABS Returns a value of the same type that is passed to it specifying the absolute value of a number. Syntax Abs(number) The required number argument can be any valid numeric expression. Remarks The absolute value of a number is its unsigned magnitude. For example, ABS(1) and ABS(1) both return 1. ATN Returns the arctangent of a number. Syntax Atn(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression. Remarks The Atn function takes the ratio of two sides of a right triangle (number) and returns the corresponding angle in radians. The ratio is the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the length of the side adjacent to the angle. The range of the result is pi/2 to pi/2 radians. To convert degrees to radians, multiply degrees by pi/180. To convert radians to degrees, multiply radians by 180/pi. Note: Atn is the inverse trigonometric function of Tan, which takes an angle as its argument and returns the ratio of two sides of a right triangle. Do not confuse Atn with the cotangent, which is the simple inverse of a tangent (1/tangent). COS Returns the cosine of an angle. Syntax Cos(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression that expresses an angle in radians. Remarks The Cos function takes an angle and returns the ratio of two sides of a right triangle. The ratio is the length of the side adjacent to the angle divided by the length of the hypotenuse. The result lies in the range 1 to 1. To convert degrees to radians, multiply degrees by pi/180. To convert radians to degrees, multiply radians by 180/pi. EXP Returns e (the base of natural logarithms) raised to a power. Syntax Exp(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression. Remarks If the value of number exceeds 709.782712893, an error occurs. The constant e is approximately 2.718282. Note: The Exp function complements the action of the Log function and is sometimes referred to as the antilogarithm. INT, FIX Returns a value of the type passed to it containing the integer portion of a number. Syntax Int(number) Fix(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression. If number contains Null, Null is returned. Remarks Both Int and Fix remove the fractional part of number and return the resulting integer value. The difference between Int and Fix is that if number is negative, Int returns the first negative integer less than or equal to number, whereas Fix returns the first negative integer greater than or equal to number. For example, Int converts 8.4 to 9, and Fix converts 8.4 to 8. Fix(number) is equivalent to: Sgn(number) * Int(Abs(number)) LOG Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Syntax Log(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression greater than zero. Remarks The natural logarithm is the logarithm to the base e. The constant e is approximately 2.718282. You can calculate basen logarithms for any number x by dividing the natural logarithm of x by the natural logarithm of n as follows: Logn(x) = Log(x) / Log(n) RND Returns a random number. Syntax Rnd[(number)] The optional number argument is any valid numeric expression. Return Values
Remarks The Rnd function returns a value less than 1 but greater than or equal to zero. The value of number determines how Rnd generates a random number: For any given initial seed, the same number sequence is generated because each successive call to the Rnd function uses the previous number as a seed for the next number in the sequence. Before calling Rnd, use the Randomize statement without an argument to initialize the randomnumber generator with a seed based on the system timer. To produce random integers in a given range, use this formula: Int((upperbound  lowerbound + 1) * Rnd + lowerbound) Here, upperbound is the highest number in the range, and lowerbound is the lowest number in the range. Note: To repeat sequences of random numbers, call Rnd with a negative argument immediately before using Randomize with a numeric argument. Using Randomize with the same value for number does not repeat the previous sequence. SGN Returns a Integer indicating the sign of a number. Syntax Sgn(number) The required number argument can be any valid numeric expression. Return Values
Remarks The sign of the number argument determines the return value of the Sgn function. SIN Returns the sine of an angle. Syntax Sin(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression that expresses an angle in radians. Remarks The Sin function takes an angle and returns the ratio of two sides of a right triangle. The ratio is the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the length of the hypotenuse. The result lies in the range 1 to 1. To convert degrees to radians, multiply degrees by pi/180. To convert radians to degrees, multiply radians by 180/pi. SQR Returns the square root of a number. Syntax Sqr(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression greater than or equal to zero. TAN Returns the tangent of an angle. Syntax Tan(number) The required number argument is any valid numeric expression that expresses an angle in radians. Remarks Tan takes an angle and returns the ratio of two sides of a right triangle. The ratio is the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the length of the side adjacent to the angle. To convert degrees to radians, multiply degrees by pi/180. To convert radians to degrees, multiply radians by 180/pi. IMP Used to perform a logical implication on two expressions. Syntax result = expression1 Imp expression2 The Imp operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks The following table illustrates how result is determined:
The Imp operator performs a bitwise comparison of identically positioned bits in two numeric expressions and sets the corresponding bit in result according to the following table:
EQV Used to perform a logical equivalence on two expressions. Syntax result = expression1 Eqv expression2 The Eqv operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks If either expression is Null, result is also Null. When neither expression is Null, result is determined according to the following table:
The Eqv operator performs a bitwise comparison of identically positioned bits in two numeric expressions and sets the corresponding bit in result according to the following table:
XOR Used to perform a logical exclusion on two expressions. Syntax [result =] expression1 Xor expression2 The Xor operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks If one, and only one, of the expressions evaluates to True, result is True. However, if either expression is Null, result is also Null. When neither expression is Null, result is determined according to the following table:
The Xor operator performs as both a logical and bitwise operator. A bitwise comparison of two expressions using exclusiveor logic to form the result, as shown in the following table:
OR Used to perform a logical disjunction on two expressions. Syntax result = expression1 Or expression2 The Or operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks If either or both expressions evaluate to True, result is True. The following table illustrates how result is determined:
The Or operator also performs a bitwise comparison of identically positioned bits in two numeric expressions and sets the corresponding bit in result according to the following table:
AND Used to perform a logical conjunction on two expressions. Syntax result = expression1 And expression2 The And operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks If both expressions evaluate to True, result is True. If either expression evaluates to False, result is False. The following table illustrates how result is determined:
The And operator also performs a bitwise comparison of identically positioned bits in two numeric expressions and sets the corresponding bit in result according to the following table:
MOD Used to divide two numbers and return only the remainder. Syntax result = number1 Mod number2 The Mod operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks The modulus, or remainder, operator divides number1 by number2 (rounding floatingpoint numbers to integers) and returns only the remainder as result. For example, in the following expression , A (result) equals 5. A = 19 Mod 6.7 Any fractional portion is truncated. However, if any expression is Null, result is Null. Any expression that is Empty is treated as 0. NOT Used to perform logical negation on an expression. Syntax result = Not expression The Not operator syntax has these parts:
Remarks The following table illustrates how result is determined:
In addition, the Not operator inverts the bit values of any variable and sets the corresponding bit in result according to the following table:
